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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that makes it difficult for airflow to go in and out of the lungs.


Symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, mucus (sputum) production and wheezing. It can be caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most often from cigarette smoke.
People with this disease are at increased risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and a variety of other conditions.

Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most frequent conditions 


that are related to the development of COPD. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. It's main trade mark includes daily cough and mucus (sputum) production.

  • Wheezing

  • Chest tightness

  • Lack of energy

  • Shortness of breath, especially during physical activities

  • Blueness of the lips or fingernail beds (cyanosis)

  • Having to clear your throat first thing in the morning, due to excess mucus in your lungs

  • A chronic cough that may produce mucus (sputum) that may be clear, white, yellow or greenish

  • Frequent respiratory infections

  • Swelling in ankles, feet or legs

  • Unintended weight loss (in later stages)

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